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Ancestral Princes Archbishops and Bishops

A prince-bishop was a bishop, who in personal union with its spiritual power also played the field on a secular territory, over which he presided as governor. If the see is an archbishopric, the correct expression is prince-archbishop, the equivalent in the regular clergy is a prince-abbot.

In the Byzantine Empire, the emperors still autocratic edited general legislation assigning all the bishops certain rights and duties in the secular administration of their dioceses, but that was part of a development Cesar-papal putting the Eastern Church in the service of the Empire, with its Patriarch almost reduced to the emperor's minister for religious affairs. The Russian Empire went further, abolishing their own patriarchy and placing the Church under the direct control of the secular government

The bishops took part in the government of the kingdom of the Franks and subsequent Carolingian Empire often as members of the clergy and dominicus missus, an official commissioned by the French king or emperor to supervise the administration, especially in the area of justice, in parts of their domains, however, this was an individual mandate, with no connection to the episcopal see.

The prince-bishoprics were most common in feudally fragmented Holy Roman Empire, where many were formally classified Reichsfürst ( "Kingdom of the Prince"), granting them representation in the Reichstag (Imperial Diet).

its rulers were known as Kurfürstentum (principality election) instead of the prince-archbishops:

Elector-archbishop of Cologne (Köln)
Elector-archbishop of Mainz (Mayence, Mentz)
Elector-archbishop of Trier (Trier)
Other prince-archbishops were:

Prince-archbishop of Magdeburg
Prince-archbishop of Bremen; continued by administrators after the Lutheran Protestant Reformation, 1566 to 1645/1648
Other prince-bishoprics of modern Germany were those of:

Augsburg
Bamberg
Brandenburg; continued by administrators after the Lutheran Protestant Reformation, from 1520 until 1571
Constance (Konstanz)
Eichstätt
Freising, after Munich and Freising
Fulda, until October 5, 1752 a Reichsabtei
Halberstadt
Havelberg; continued by administrators after the Lutheran Protestant Reformation, 1548 to 1598
Hildesheim
Lebus, established in Fürstenwalde; continued by administrators after the Lutheran Protestant Reformation, from 1550 to 1598
Lübeck; continued by administrators after the Lutheran Protestant Reformation, from 1535 to 1803
Merseburg
Minden
Münster
Naumburg
Osnabrück, alternating between Catholics and Protestants after the Thirty Years' War, an example of distortion of the post-Reformation
Paderborn
Passau
Ratzeburg
Regensburg (Regensburg)
Schwerin
Speyer (Speyer)
Verden; continued by administrators after the Lutheran Reformation until 1645/1648
Würzburg
Moreover, there was Prince-bishoprics in neighboring regions, then considered part of Germany (the Holy Roman Empire at all other kingdoms within the empire), specifically in the ancient kingdom of central Lotharingia, now in the French region of Alsace-Lorraine:

Strasbourg (Strasbourg in French)
called three bishoprics of Lorraine:
Metz
Toul
Verdun
Basel. Most of the old Basel Fürstbistum now belongs to Switzerland.

In what is now Austria
The Archbishopric of Salzburg was and remains a Catholic Metropolitan, with the title of Primate, in 1803, its great temporal territory was elevated to the Electorate, but also as secularized
Duchy.
Moreover, among its suffragan are:

Prince-Bishop of Gurk in Carinthia
Prince-Bishop of St.Andrä / Lavant, in Styria
Prince-Bishop of Seckau, also in Styria, later transferring to the episcopal Graz 
In what is now Switzerland
The creation of the Bishopric of Sion, or better, Sitten in German, is a classic example of a unified secular authority and diocesan.
Prince-Bishop of Geneva (in French Genève, Genf in German), lost its territory between 1526 and 1539
the bishop of Lausanne, lost his territory in 1526
Prince-Bishop of Chur
Prince-Bishop of Basel, originally ruling the territory of the current Swiss cantons of Basel and the Jura, after the Reformation in Basel, Jura only separated from Basel-Country. 
In what is now the Netherlands
Liège in present-day Belgium, Netherlands: Luik, German: Lüttich
Cambrai (Flemish in Kamerijk; an archdiocese 1559-1802), now in France, was a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire, which in 1007, Henry II invested with authority over the County Cambrésis, remaining as a prince-( arch) bishopric real, until, under the reign of Louis XIV, became French in 1678, and church controlled the western part of Belgium (the rest was under the control of Liège).
The Bishopric of Utrecht was an engaging Sticht (Stift) until its conversion into a temporal lordship in 1527 (later became the only Flemish archbishop), but also a much larger Oberstift ( 'Opper Stift'), in Germany itself also to be secularized and divided (mainly landlords of Overijssel, in 1528 and Drenthe in 1538), only later raised the rating of Metropolitan
All three (at least initially) were suffragan of the elector (Prince-Archbishop) Cologne 

 In what is now Italy
the prince-archbishop of the patriarch of Aquileia, known for its superior position as ecclesiastical patriarchy
the bishop (and count) of Brescia
the bishop of Bressanone, until 1964
Bishop of Trento (Trient in German)
the bishop of Trieste occupied the county of the same name (which had previously been a duchy)

The career of Albert of Buxhoeveden and his brother Herman, exemplifies the dual nature of power, especially on trade marks in Europe, where Roman Catholicism was imposed aggressively to the East. In the early thirteenth century, when the Third Crusade, the fleet of ships and thousands of Alberto Crusaders began the Christianization of the eastern Baltic, with the blessing of Pope Innocent III, his uncle, the archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen and King Philip of the Holy Roman Empire, which established the first canon of Bremen, a prince of the Holy Roman Empire (1207) and Livonia (Latvia and part of Estonia) as a fief. The prince built his own cathedral in Riga, the city he founded.

The Czech bishop (later Metropolitan) from Olmütz, as a vassal principality of the crown of Bohemia, was the origin of margraviate Moravia and 1365, the prince-bishop was "Count of Chaplaincy bohemian ', ie, the first chaplain the court, which was to accompany the monarch on his frequent trips.

England
The bishops of Durham were also territorial prince-bishops, with the classification of secular extraordinary Count Palatine, as was his duty not only be the head of large dioceses, but also help protect the kingdom against the threat from the north Scotland. The title has remained since the
union of England and Scotland



creation of, United Kingdom of Great Britain from 1707 until 1836.





France
With the exception of Cambrai (see above, Netherlands), no diocese had a French principality of great political significance attached to their religious center.

However, a number of French bishops were holding titles of nobility, with a small territory, in general, under his control, was often a princely title, especially Earl. In fact, six of the original pairies (vassals real winners with the highest priority in court) were bishops: Archbishop of Reims and five other bishops suffragan to Reims, except the bishop of Langres), the top three held the ducal title and the other the title of count.

They were later collected by the Archbishop of Paris, with a ducal title, but with priority over all others. See also the Peerage of France.


 
In Portugal
The bishop of Coimbra, held the title of Count of Arganil.



 
   
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